At the same time, naturally, indigenous views of the man have been overwhelmingly negative. With all of this in mind, it is again remarkable that Pizarro remains one of the less well-known and less written about of the explorers of his age. On the other hand, there are certain factors that may account for the conqueror of Perus relative lack of lasting glory. For one, he was a latecomer in more than one sense. Legendary Explorers: The Life and Legacy of Francisco Pizarro chronicles Pizarros life, but it also examines the aftermath of his conquest and analyzes the controversy surrounding his legacy.
Along with pictures of important people, places, and events in his life, you will learn about Pizarro like you never have before, in no time at all.
Hernan Cortes (Great Explorers)
Escribe tu propio comentario. Opina y Califica. Facebook Twitter Youtube Instagram Googlemaps gandhi. Fecha de Nacimiento 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre Todos los Derechos Reservados. While it was an important god, because it was the god of the conquerors, they did not see why they had to abandon their old beliefs.
As a result, a second wave of missionaries began a process attempting to completely erase the old beliefs, and thus wiped out many aspects of Mesoamerican culture. Hundreds of thousands of Aztec codices were destroyed, Aztec priests and teachers were persecuted, and the temples and statues of the old gods were destroyed. The Aztec education system was abolished and replaced by a very limited church education.
Even some foods associated with Mesoamerican religious practice, such as amaranto, were forbidden. Eventually, the Indians were not only forbidden to learn of their cultures, but also were forbidden to learn to read and write in Spanish. In some areas, some of the natives were declared minors, and forbidden to learn to read and write, so they would always need a Spanish man in charge of them to be responsible of their indoctrination. Unlike the English-speaking colonists of North America, the majority of the Spanish colonists were single men who married or made concubines of the natives, and were even encouraged to do so by Queen Isabella during the earliest days of colonization.
As a result of these unions, as well as concubinage and secret mistresses, a vast class of people known as "Mestizos" and mulattos came into being.
Compatible con los siguientes dispositivos:
But even if mixes were allowed, the white population tried, largely successfully even today, to keep their status via a caste system. He began the construction of Mexico City on the Aztec ruins and brought many Spaniards over to live there. It soon became the most important European city in North America.
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He spent the next seven years establishing peace among the Indians of Mexico and developing mines and farmlands. At the time of his death his estate contained at least two hundred slaves who were either native Africans or of African descent. The two arduous years that he spent on this disastrous expedition damaged his health and his position.
Legendary Explorers: The Life and Legacy of Francisco Pizarro de Charles River Editors en Gandhi
He never forgave himself and in the end he was said to have remarked, "I didn't want it this way. It is true that a few years after an unfavorable change took place in his relations with Charles V and his government. Mexico became a Spanish colony through his instrumentality, but it was the duty of the Spanish government to care for it. To this he could not object, as it was an established custom. He died at Mexico soon after his arrival, in a manner that leaves little doubt of foul play, although the historian William H. Prescott discredits it, but Prescott did not have access to the documentary material that has since been unearthed.
His property was seized by the officials he had left in charge, and reports of the cruelty of their administration and the chaos it created aroused concern in Spain.
The situation was a very critical one for the crown. Hence a conflict had to be avoided as long as possible. At the same time his attention was insensibly directed to explorations outside of America, to the much-desired Moluccas or Spice Islands. Relatively recently discovered evidence leaves no doubt that Catalina Xuarez was strangled by her husband. The proceedings of the investigation were kept secret. Had the government declared him innocent, it would have greatly increased his popularity; had it declared him a criminal, a crisis would have been precipitated by the accused and his party.
Silence was the only safe policy. But that silence is a strong indication that grave danger was apprehended from his influence. In , year of the conquest, Charles V was attending to matters in his German domains and Spain was ruled by Bishop Adrian of Utrecht later pope , who functioned as regent. Before he died, he appointed Marcos de Aguilar as alcalde mayor. The aged Aguilar also became sick and appointed Alonso de Estrada governor. Estrada sent Diego de Figueroa to the south; but de Figueroa raided graveyards and extorted contributions, meeting his end when the ship carrying these treasures sunk.
In August a royal decree arrived confirming Estrada as governor. Albornoz persuaded him to release Salazar and Chirinos. He presented himself with great splendor before the court. He was received by Charles with every distinction, and decorated with the order of Santiago. Furthermore, there were so many accusations made against him that, after reasserting his position and reestablishing some sort of order, he retired to his estates at Cuernavaca, about 30 miles 48 kilometers south of Mexico City.
There he concentrated on the building of his palace and on Pacific exploration. On his return he was utterly neglected, and could scarcely obtain an audience. On one occasion he forced his way through a crowd that surrounded the emperor's carriage, and mounted on the footstep. The emperor, astounded at such audacity, demanded of him who he was. The emperor finally permitted him to join the great expedition against Algiers in During this unfortunate campaign, which was his last, he served with great bravery. Had his advice been heeded, the Spanish arms might have been saved from disgrace, and Europe delivered nearly three centuries earlier from the scourge of organized piracy.
Having spent a great deal of his own money to finance expeditions, he was now heavily in debt. In February he made a claim on the royal treasury, but was given a royal runaround for the next three years. Disgusted, he decided to return to Mexico in When he reached Seville, he was stricken with dysentery. He died in Castilleja de la Cuesta, Seville province, on December 2, , from a case of pleurisy at age Like Columbus , he died a wealthy but embittered man. He left his many mestizo and white children well cared for in his will, along with every one of their mothers.
He requested in his will that his remains eventually be buried in Mexico. It is extremely difficult to characterize this particular conquistador—his uncharacteristic acts of brutality, his tactical and strategic awareness, the rewards for his Tlaxcalteca allies along with the rehabilitation of the nobility including a castle for Moctezuma's heirs in Spain that still stands , his respect for Indians as worthy adversaries and family members. He hoped to acquire a productive province, not a slave state. Orders to his troops were explicit.
No one was to "vex or offend" the natives. Women and children must always be spared.
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Only food, and that scrupulously paid for, might be taken. Looting and rape were punishable by death. Only in the first few battles were they without allies. In so doing, he made himself the champion of the vast majority of the Indians of New Spain. He was their friend and protector, and he never lost their love and respect.
Whether these friendships were genuine or strategic, a tactic of divide and rule, though, is an open question. His letters to Charles V are filled with warnings and pleas. He begged that only settlers be allowed in New Spain, not adventurers "intent on consuming the country's substance and then abandoning it. Most of all, he deplored the practice of repaying services to the crown with Indian slaves to work land grants, yet he had no other way of rewarding his own followers.
Charles V was not interested. He obviously believed his insistence on the conversion of the natives, thus ensuring their Heavenly reward, was quite enough and considered enslavement a small price to pay for such favors. Nor did he accede to any other request. The Indians greeted him with wild rejoicing and his fellow Spaniards were willing to join him in ousting the usurpers. He succeeded and was fobbed off with a title and huge land grants, complete with thousands of slaves.
He was graciously allowed to retain the office of captain general and continue his profitable conquests for the crown, but denied any say in their administration. The way Indians were treated varied from one part of the Americas to another. However, they were generally treated better in the Kingdom of New Spain than in Peru. Even his attempt to justify his conquest of the Mexican mainland—a right held by the governor of Cuba , Diego Velasquez—through the founding of Veracruz and an appeal directly to Emperor Charles V had been used by other conquistadors interested in usurping the right of conquest.
It must be remembered that when Velasquez conquered Cuba he did so with the authority of the governor of Santo Domingo, Diego Columbus. But when he established the city of Santiago, he formed a town council with which he resigned his offices from Columbus and established himself as governor of Cuba under the Spanish crown. The crown gave him the legal authority once it recognized the fait accompli.
It was a precedent that Velasquez would subsequently come to regret. In addition, as stated above, smallpox turned out to be his greatest ally. His letters to the emperor, on the conquest, deserve to be classed among the best Spanish documents of the period. They are, of course, coloured so as to place his own achievements in relief, but, withal, he keeps within bounds and does not exaggerate, except in matters of Indian civilization and the numbers of population as implied by the size of the settlements.
Grace Raymond Hebard. Great Expeditions: 50 Journeys that changed our world. Levison Wood. Francisco Pizarro.